Decades in Business, Technology and Digital Law

AI and Consumer Protection: Navigating New Frontiers in Transparency, Consent, and Behavior

by | May 12, 2024 | Firm News

Just how intrusive can/will AI be in the lives of the average person? Well, we are all consumers, and that makes us all targets, and as you will see below, the sky is the limit.

As artificial intelligence (AI) becomes increasingly embedded in consumer products—from smart home devices and personal assistants to sophisticated recommender systems on streaming platforms—the implications for consumer protection are profound and complex. This blog post explores the impact of AI on consumer rights, focusing on the essential issues of transparency, consent, and the potential manipulation of consumer behavior.

The Intersection of AI and Consumer Rights

AI technologies offer significant benefits, such as enhanced user experience, personalization of services, and improved product functionality. However, these advances also bring potential risks that could undermine consumer trust and safety if not properly managed.

1. Transparency in AI Systems

Transparency is a cornerstone of consumer protection, ensuring that users understand how products function and make decisions. However, AI systems often operate as “black boxes,” where the decision-making process is opaque or too complex for the average consumer to understand. This lack of transparency can prevent consumers from making informed decisions and challenge their ability to seek redress when things go wrong.

Example: When a consumer receives a recommendation from an AI-driven platform, such as a movie on a streaming service or a product on an e-commerce site, it’s often unclear why these recommendations were made and what data was used.

2. Informed Consent in the Age of AI

Consent is another fundamental aspect of consumer rights, traditionally obtained by businesses to use personal data or to inform consumers about the functioning of a product. In the context of AI, obtaining genuine informed consent becomes challenging, as consumers might not fully understand the extent and implications of data collection and processing carried out by AI systems.

Example: Smart devices in homes collect vast amounts of personal data, often continuously. The terms of consent and data usage are usually buried in lengthy, complex terms of service agreements that few consumers read or understand.

3. Manipulation of Consumer Behavior

Perhaps the most alarming issue is the potential for AI to manipulate consumer behavior. AI can analyze a person’s behavior, preferences, and even emotional states, making it possible to influence decisions subtly but effectively. This capability raises ethical questions about the extent to which it is acceptable for AI to influence consumer choices and potentially exploit vulnerabilities.

Example: Personalized advertising powered by AI algorithms can target consumers when they are most vulnerable, such as promoting unhealthy snacks to someone who has a history of late-night junk food purchases.

Strategies for Enhancing Consumer Protection

To mitigate these risks, several strategies can be employed:

  • Enhanced Regulatory Frameworks: Governments and regulatory bodies need to update consumer protection laws to address the unique challenges posed by AI, including standards for transparency and consent.
  • AI Literacy: Educating consumers about AI and its implications can empower them to make better decisions and demand higher standards from manufacturers and service providers.
  • Ethical AI Development: Companies should adopt ethical guidelines for AI development that prioritize consumer welfare and prevent manipulative practices.
  • Auditing and Certification: Independent auditing of AI systems for compliance with consumer protection standards can help build trust. Certification schemes can also inform consumers about the products that meet high ethical and transparency standards.


As AI technologies evolve, so too must our approaches to consumer protection. By focusing on transparency, informed consent, and preventing manipulation, we can ensure that AI serves to enhance consumer experiences without compromising fundamental rights and freedoms. The goal is not merely to adapt to a new technological reality but to shape it in a way that respects and enhances consumer rights in the digital age.