Decades in Business, Technology and Digital Law

Making Sure End User and Other Online Agreements are Binding

by | May 28, 2024 | Firm News

In today’s fast-paced, digitally driven world, the adoption of electronic signatures has revolutionized the way we conduct business. As organizations and individuals seek more efficient and secure methods to validate agreements, electronic signatures have become an essential tool. But what about their legal acceptance globally?

The good news is that electronic signatures are now widely accepted and recognized by legal frameworks around the world. Here’s a brief overview:

  1. United States: The Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce (ESIGN) Act of 2000 and the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA) provide a comprehensive legal framework, making electronic signatures legally binding and enforceable.
  2. European Union: The eIDAS (electronic Identification, Authentication and trust Services) Regulation, implemented in 2016, standardizes the use and legal recognition of electronic signatures across EU member states. This regulation ensures that electronic signatures are treated the same as handwritten ones, provided they meet certain criteria.
  3. Asia: Countries like China, Japan, and India have also embraced electronic signatures. China’s Electronic Signature Law and Japan’s Electronic Signature and Certification Business Act provide a robust legal framework. India’s Information Technology Act of 2000 recognizes electronic signatures, provided they adhere to specific guidelines.
  4. Latin America: In Brazil, the Provisional Measure 2,200-2/2001 regulates electronic signatures. Mexico follows the Advanced Electronic Signature (FIEL) standard, ensuring electronic signatures have the same legal standing as handwritten ones.
  5. Australia and New Zealand: Both countries have enacted legislation to support electronic signatures. Australia’s Electronic Transactions Act 1999 and New Zealand’s Electronic Transactions Act 2002 recognize and facilitate the use of electronic signatures in business and government transactions.

However, despite the widespread adoption and acceptance of electronic signatures worldwide, there are certain types of agreements and specific countries where their use may not be valid. Understanding these exceptions is crucial for businesses and individuals who rely on electronic signatures for their operations. Here are some notable examples:

Types of Agreements Often Excluded from Electronic Signatures:

  1. Wills and Trusts: Many jurisdictions require wills and trusts to be signed with traditional handwritten signatures and may also require witnesses to be physically present during the signing process.
  2. Court Documents and Filings: Some legal systems do not accept electronic signatures on court documents, pleadings, and filings, requiring physical signatures to ensure authenticity.
  3. Marriage and Divorce Documents: Marriage licenses and divorce papers typically require in-person signing and authentication by relevant authorities.
  4. Adoption Papers: Adoption processes often necessitate in-person verification and signing to ensure the legitimacy of the documentation.
  5. Notarized Documents: Documents that require notarization generally need to be signed in the presence of a notary public, who can verify the identity of the signer and witness the signing process.
  6. Powers of Attorney: Many jurisdictions demand physical signatures on powers of attorney to ensure that the document is executed with full consent and understanding.

Countries with Restrictions or Limited Acceptance:

  1. Brazil: While Brazil has provisions for electronic signatures under its Provisional Measure 2,200-2/2001, certain documents, particularly those that require notarization, may still require handwritten signatures.
  2. Japan: Japan recognizes electronic signatures under its Electronic Signature and Certification Business Act. However, certain legal documents, such as real estate transactions and marriage certificates, still necessitate physical signatures.
  3. China: Although China’s Electronic Signature Law supports the use of electronic signatures, some sectors, like banking and financial services, may have additional regulations that require traditional signatures for specific transactions.
  4. India: India’s Information Technology Act of 2000 allows electronic signatures, but documents such as wills, negotiable instruments, and power of attorney often require physical signatures for legal validity.
  5. Russia: Russia has a legal framework for electronic signatures, but documents that need notarization, such as property transactions and certain legal agreements, usually require handwritten signatures.
  6. South Korea: Electronic signatures are widely accepted in South Korea; however, specific documents like real estate transactions and some government forms may still require physical signatures.


While electronic signatures offer numerous benefits, including efficiency and convenience, it’s essential to be aware of the exceptions and specific legal requirements in various jurisdictions. By understanding where and when electronic signatures are not valid, businesses and individuals can ensure compliance with local laws and avoid potential legal complications.

Staying informed about the evolving legal landscape surrounding electronic signatures is key to leveraging their advantages while adhering to necessary legal standards.

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